Alaska also known as "the last frontier" is the largest state in the United States of America. It covers an area of 663,268 square miles, and is the least densely populated state with an estimated population of 738,432.
Alaska is bordered by the Yukon Territory and British Columbia in Canada to the east; the Gulf of Alaska and Pacific Ocean to the south; the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, and Chukchi Sea to the west; and the Arctic Ocean to the north .
Juneau has been the capital of Alaska since 1906. A port on Gastineau Channel, Juneau is a trade center for the Panhandle area, with an ice-free harbor and an airport. The state and federal governments are the major employers. Salmon and halibut fishing, mining, and tourism are also important economic activities.It covers an area of 3,255 square miles and has an estimated population of 30,988. It is home to the Alaska State Capitol, which was built in 1931. It is the only American capital to border another country.
Anchorage is the largest city in the state, the administrative and commercial heart of S central and W Alaska, one of the nation's key defense centers, and a vital transportation hub.The city includes two U.S. military bases, Fort Richardson and Elmendorf Air Force Base. Anchorage is also the headquarters for the major oil and gas companies in Alaska. Located in the south-central Alaska, it is home to 40% of the population with an estimated population of 291,826 and covers an area of 1,961.1 square miles.
Political situation of Alaska: The United States of America purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million in 1867. Alaska was approved as a state by the Congress on July 7, 1958 and was officially proclaimed a state on January 3, 1959.
Alaska is governed as a republic. The government has three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial branch. The executive branch comprises the Governor and other independently elected officers, while the legislative branch comprises House of Representatives and the Senate. Bill Walker, R (to Dec. 2018) is the 11th and current Governor of Alaska. Byron Mallott, R (to Dec. 2018) is the current Lieutenant Governor of Alaska. Senators are Dan Sullivan, R (to Jan. 2021); Lisa Murkowski, R (to Jan. 2017)
Economic situation of Alaska:
Alaska has very little agriculture, ranking last in the nation in number of farms and value of farm products. The state's best arable land is in its S central region, in the Matanuska Valley N of Anchorage and the Tanana Valley (around Fairbanks). The state's most valuable farm commodities are greenhouse and dairy products and potatoes.
Alaska leads the nation in the value of its commercial fishing catch—chiefly salmon, crab, shrimp, halibut, herring, and cod. Anchorage and Dutch Harbor are major fishing ports, and the freezing and canning of fish dominates the food-processing industry, the state's largest manufacturing enterprise. Lumbering and related industries are of great importance, although disputes over logging in the state's great national forests are ongoing. Mining, principally of petroleum and natural gas, is the state's most valuable industry. Gold, which led to settlement at the end of the 19th cent., is no longer mined in quantity. Fur-trapping, Alaska's oldest industry, endures; pelts are obtained from a great variety of animals. The Pribilof Islands are especially noted as a source of sealskins (the seals there are owned by the U.S. government, and their use is carefully regulated).
In 1968 vast reserves of oil and natural gas were discovered on the Alaska North Slope near Prudhoe Bay. The petroleum reservoir was determined to be twice the size of any other field in North America. The 800-mi (1,287-km) Trans-Alaska pipeline from the North Slope to the ice-free port of Valdez opened in 1977, after bitter opposition from environmentalists, and oil began to dominate the state economy. The Alaska Permanent Fund, created in 1977, receives 25% of Alaska's oil royalty income. The fund is designed to provide the state with income after the oil reserves are depleted and has paid dividends to all residents.
Government—federal, state, and local—is Alaska's major source of employment. The state's strategic location has generated considerable defense activity since World War II, including the establishment of highways, airfields, and permanent military bases. Alaska's tourism increased dramatically with the help of improvements in transportation; it now follows only oil among the state's industries. The Inside Passage, Denali National Park, and the 1000-mi (1,600 km) Iditarod sled-dog race are major attractions.
Arizona, also known as the Grand Canyon State, is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous state of the USA with an estimated population of 6,828,065. It is a situated in the southwestern United States, bordered by Utah to the north, New Mexico to the east, Mexico to the south, and, across the Colorado R., Nevada and California to the west.
The capital and the largest city of Arizona is Phoenix.With 1,563,025 people (as of 2015), Phoenix is the sixth most populous city nationwide, the most populous state capital in the United States, and the only state capital with a population of more than 1 million residents. Also, Arizona has one of the largest U.S. Indian populations; more than 14 tribes are represented on 20 reservations.
Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, and spruce trees; the Colorado Plateau; some mountain ranges (such as the San Francisco Mountains); as well as large, deep canyons, with much more moderate summer temperatures and significant winter snowfalls. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff, Alpine, and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, and national monuments.
Arizona's educational institutions include the University of Arizona, at Tucson; Arizona State University, at Tempe; Northern Arizona University, at Flagstaff; and several private institutions.
Political situation of Arizona : The state’s constitution provides for an elected governor and bicameral legislature, with a 30-member senate and a 60-member house of representatives. The governor and members of the legislature serve two-year terms. The state elects two senators and nine representatives to the U.S. Congress and has 11 electoral votes. The current Governor of Arizona is Doug Ducey, R (to Jan. 2019) and Secretary of State is Michele Reagan. The senators are Jeff Flake, R (to Jan. 2019) and John McCain, R (to Jan. 2017).
Economic Situation of Arizona :
The state`s principal crops are cotton, lettuce, cauliflowers, broccoli, and sorghum. Cattle, calves, and dairy goods are, however, the most valuable Arizona farm products. Manufacturing is the leading economic activity, with electronics, printing and publishing, processed foods, and aerospace and transportation leading sectors. High-technology research and development, communications, and service industries are also important, as are construction (the state is rapidly growing) and tourism. Military facilities contributing to Arizona's economy include Fort Huachuca, Luke and Davis-Monthan air force bases, and the Yuma Proving Grounds. Testing and training with military aircraft and desert storage of commercial and military planes are both major undertakings.
Arizona abounds in minerals. Copper is the state's most valuable mineral; Arizona leads the nation in production. Other leading resources are molybdenum, sand, gravel, and cement.
The mountains in the north and central regions have 3,180,000 acres (1,286,900 hectares) of commercial forests, chiefly ponderosa pines and other firs, which support lumber and building-materials industries. The U.S. government owns about 95% of the commercial forests in the state. National and state forests attract millions of tourists yearly. Tourism centers in the N on the Grand Canyon, the Painted Desert, the Petrified Forest, meteor craters, ancient Native American ruins, and the Navajo and Hopi reservations that cover nearly all of the state's northeast quadrant. SE Arizona's warm, dry climate and Spanish colonial ruins also attract a large tourist trade, as do golf courses and other leisure facilities.
Also known as the Golden State, California is the most populous state in the United States, located in the Far West. It has an estimated population of 39,144,818.
California is bordered by Oregon to the north, Nevada to the east, and Arizona to the southeast, and also it shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California to the south and the Pacific Ocean is on the state's western coastline.
The state capital is Sacramento. The largest cities are Los Angeles -the second-largest city in the United States after New York City, San Diego, San Jose, San Francisco, Long Beach, Oakland, and Sacramento.
Among the state's more prominent institutions of higher learning are the University of California, with ten campuses (UC Berkeley,UC Davis,UC Irvine, UCLA, UC Merced, UC Riverside, UC San Diego, UC San Francisco, UC Santa Barbara, UC Santa Cruz); the California State University System, Occidental College and the University of Southern California; Stanford University, the California Institute of Technology, Mills College, and the Claremont Colleges.
The culture of California is a Western culture and most clearly has its modern roots in the culture of the United States, but also, historically, many Hispanic influences. As a border and coastal state, Californian culture has been greatly influenced by several large immigrant populations, especially those from Latin America and Asia
California is regarded as a global trendsetter in both popular culture and politics, and is the birthplace of the film industry, the hippie counterculture, the Internet and the personal computer.
Political Situation of California :
The state's present constitution, dating from 1879, is noted for its provisions for public initiative and referendum—which have led at times to difficulties in governance—and for recall of public officials. The state's executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term. California's bicameral legislature has a senate with 40 members and an assembly with 80 members. The state elects 2 senators and 53 representatives to the U.S. Congress and has 55 electoral votes. Jerry Brown is the current and the 39th Governor of California. The Lieut. Governor is Gavin Newsom, D (to Jan. 2019)
Also ,California became the first state to simultaneously elect two women to the U.S. Senate—Kamala Harris, D - Dianne Feinstein, D (to Jan. 2019).
Economic Situation of California :
California has an enormously productive economy, which for a nation would be one of the ten largest in the world. Although agriculture is gradually yielding to industry as the core of the state's economy, California leads the nation in the production of fruits and vegetables, including carrots, lettuce, onions, broccoli, tomatoes, strawberries, and almonds. The state's most valuable crops are grapes, cotton, flowers, and oranges; dairy products, however, contribute the single largest share of farm income, and California is again the national leader in this sector. The state also produces the major share of U.S. domestic wine. California's farms are highly productive as a result of good soil, a long growing season, and the use of modern agricultural methods. Irrigation is critical, especially in the San Joaquin Valley and Imperial Valley. The gathering and packing of crops is done largely by seasonal migrant labor, primarily Mexicans. Fishing is another important industry.
Much of the state's industrial production depends on the processing of farm produce and upon such local resources as petroleum, natural gas, lumber, cement, and sand and gravel. Since World War II, however, manufacturing, notably of electronic equipment, computers, machinery, transportation equipment, and metal products, has increased enormously. Many high-tech companies and small low-tech, often low-wage, companies remain in S California, in what is said to be the largest manufacturing belt in the United States. Farther north, "Silicon Valley," between Palo Alto and San Jose, so called because it is the nation's leading producer of semiconductors, is also a focus of software development.
California continues to be a major U.S. center for motion-picture, television film, and related entertainment industries, especially in Hollywood and Burbank. Tourism also is an important source of income. Disneyland, Sea World, and other theme parks draw millions of visitors each year, as do San Francisco with its numerous attractions and several entertainment-dominated Los Angeles–area communities. California also abounds in natural beauty, seen especially in its many national parks and forests—home to such attractions as Yosemite Falls and giant Sequoia trees—and along miles of Pacific beaches.
Colorado, also known as the “Centennial State”, is a part of the Western United States, the Southwestern United States, and the Mountain States. Colorado is the 8th most extensive and the 22nd most populous of the 50 United States. The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Colorado was 5,456,574 on July 1, 2015.
Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma and New Mexico to the south, and Utah to the west.
Denver is the capital and the largest city of Colorado. With a 2015 estimated population of 682,545, Denver ranks as the 19th-most populous U.S. city, and with a 2.8% increase in 2015, the city is also the fastest growing major city in the United States. Other major cities are Colorado Springs, Aurora, Lakewood, and Pueblo.
Colorado has the highest mean elevation of any state, with more than 1,000 Rocky Mountain peaks over 10,000 ft high and 54 towering above 14,000 ft. Also, Breathtaking scenery and world-class skiing make Colorado a prime tourist destination. One of the most scenic states in the country, Colorado has recreational parks including Rocky Mountain National Park, Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park with its narrow gorge cut by the Gunnison River, Dinosaur National Monument in NW Colorado, and Great Sand Dunes and Dinosaur National Monuments and Preserve in S central Colorado, Curecanti National Recreation Area, Colorado National Monument, Mesa Verde National Park and Canyons of the Ancients and Chimney Rock national monuments, once home to Ancestral Pueblo peoples.
Among Colorado's institutions of higher learning are the University of Colorado, at Boulder; the University of Denver, at Denver; Colorado State University, at Fort Collins; and the United States Air Force Academy, at Colorado Springs.
Political Situation of Colorado :
The 42nd and current Governor of Colorado is John Hickenlooper, D (to Jan. 2019), with Lieut. Governor, Joseph A. Garcia, D (to Jan. 2019).
Colorado’s state government is based on the constitution drawn up in 1876 and since amended. The governor serves for a term of four years. The legislature is made up of a senate with 35 members and a house of representatives with 65 members. Colorado is represented in the U.S. Congress by two senators ; Michael Farrand Bennet, D (to Jan. 2017); Cory Gardner, R (to Jan. 2019) and six representatives and has eight votes in the electoral college.
Economical Situation of Colorado :
Once primarily a mining and agricultural state, Colorado's economy is now driven by the service industries, including medical providers and other business and professional services. Colorado's economy also has a strong manufacturing base. The primary manufactures are food products, printing and publishing, machinery, and electrical instruments. The state is also a communications and transportation hub for the Rocky Mountain region.
Agriculture, especially the raising of cattle and sheep and production of dairy goods, is economically important in the state. Crops include wheat, hay, corn, and sugar beets. Since the 1950s, manufacturing has been the major source of income in the state. Food processing is a major industry; others include the manufacture of computer equipment, aerospace products, transportation equipment, and electrical equipment; printing and publishing; and the production of fabricated metals, chemicals, and lumber. Federal facilities including army and air force bases, prisons, and the Denver Mint, as well as regional offices, contribute greatly to the economy.
Tourism plays a vital role in Colorado's economy. The state's climate, scenery, historical sites, and extensive recreational facilities bring millions of visitors annually. Numerous resorts in towns such as Vail and Aspen attract visitors year-round as well as during ski season. Besides fine hunting, fishing, and skiing there are many special events held in the state, including arts festivals, rodeos, and fairs.
Leading minerals today are petroleum, coal, molybdenum, sand and gravel, and uranium. Gold is no longer mined extensively. There are also large coal and oil deposits.
Hawaii, nicknamed as “Aloha State”, is the 50th and most recent state of the United States of America, comprising a group of eight major islands -- Hawaii, Kahoolawe, Maui, Lanai, Molokai, Oahu,Kauai, and Niihau, and numerous islets in the central Pacific Ocean. It is the only U.S. state not located in the Americas.
Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the fifty U.S. states, with the population of 1,431,603 on 10,931 sq miles area.(2015 est)
Honolulu is the capital and largest city of Hawaii, on the southeast coast of the island of Oahu.The population of Oahu makes up 73% of the state's total population. It is situated in the central Pacific Ocean 2,397 mi west-southwest of San Francisco.
Hawaii is sometimes called "the paradise of the Pacific" because of its spectacular beauty: abundant sunshine; expanses of lush green plants and gaily colored flowers; palm-fringed, coral beaches with rolling white surf; and cloud-covered volcanic peaks rising to majestic heights. Some of the world's largest active and inactive volcanoes are found on Hawaii and Maui; eruptions of the active volcanoes have provided spectacular displays, but their lava flows have occasionally caused great property damage. Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa are volcanic mountains on Hawaii island; Haleakala volcano is on Maui in Haleakala National Park.
More ethnic and cultural groups are represented in Hawaii than in any other state. Chinese laborers, who came to work in the sugar industry, were the first of the large groups of immigrants to arrive (starting in 1852), and Filipinos and Koreans were the last (after 1900). Other immigrant groups—including Portuguese, Germans, Japanese, and Puerto Ricans—came in the latter part of the 19th cent. Intermarriage with other races has brought a further decrease in the number of pure-blooded Hawaiians, who comprise a very small percentage of the population.
Hawaii's institutions of higher learning include the University of Hawaii, with campuses at Honolulu, Hilo, and Pearl City; Chaminade University and Hawaii Pacific University, at Honolulu; and the Hawaii campus of Brigham Young University, at Laie, Oahu.
Political Situation of Hawaii :
Hawaii's constitution was drafted in 1950 and became effective with statehood in 1959. The governor is elected every four years. The legislature has a senate with 25 members and a house of representatives with 51 members. The state elects two representatives and two senators to the U.S. Congress and has four electoral votes.
David Ige, D (to Dec. 2018) is the eighth and current Governor of Hawaii. Lieut.
Governor is Shan Tsutsui (to Dec. 2018).
Senators: Mazie Hirono (D) (to Jan. 2019); Brian Schatz, D (to Dec. 2017)
Economical Situation of Hawaii :
Tourism is the top industry in the state of Hawaii. Centrally located between the U.S. and Japan, Hawaii entertains tourists from around the world. People visit the state to enjoy the vast beaches and pleasant climate. The island of Oahu, also home to Waikiki Beach, is considered the main tourist area.
In 2014, the Hawaiian islands had a record year for tourism. More than 8.2 million people visited the area in 2014, according to the Hawaii Tourism Authority. Defense is a large part of Hawaii’s economy. Several Army, Navy, Marine, Coast Guard, and Air Force bases are located in the state. With so many military personnel stationed in the state, the government also has its own military newspapers, golf courses, and accommodations for its employees.
Almost 4 percent of Hawaii’s population is military personnel (47,410), not including those who work in the civilian sector, reports To-Hawaii.com based on 2010 U.S. census data.
With such a tropical climate, Hawaii is a producer of many agricultural products. That state is second in the nation for sugar cane production and the first in the nation for pineapple production. Specialty crops — such as flowers, coffee, and macadamia nuts — are a large part of the state’s exports. Agriculture accounts for generating $2.9 billion to Hawaii’s annual economy, and accounts for 42,000 jobs, reports the state’s Department of Agriculture.
Manufacturing is another strong industry in Hawaii and is primarily concentrated on Oahu Island. Products being produced include apparel and cotton-based products that are exported off the island. Food items are also processed, such as refined sugar and pineapple. Specialty items such as juices, jams, and candies are other exports that are a significant part of the Hawaiian economy, according to Altius Directory.
The service industry thrives in Hawaii, including hotels, private healthcare, finance, and real estate. Community and personal services are the top ranked in Hawaii’s service industry, followed by government services and finance.
Approximately 90 percent of the state’s gross product is derived front the service industry, reports NetState.com.
Source : http://www.infoplease.com/us-states/hawaii.html
Idaho is one of the Rocky Mt. states in the northwestern United States. It is the 14th largest, the 39th most populous, and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 United States. The estimated population is 1,654,930 and the state has an area of 83,569 square miles (216,440 km2). Idaho is also known as “The Gem State”, because nearly every known type of gemstone has been found there.
Idaho is bordered by Montana and Wyoming to the east, Utah and Nevada to the south, Oregon and Washington to the west, and the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north.
The state's largest city and capital Boise is an important trade and transportation center. Food processing and the manufacture of paper and wood products, computer hardware and software, semiconductors, and electronics are the major industries.Other cities of importance are Pocatello and Idaho Falls.
Outstanding among Idaho's institutions of higher learning are the Unversity of Idaho, at Moscow; Idaho State University, at Pocatello; and Boise State University, at Boise.
Points of interest are the Craters of the Moon National Monument; Nez Percé National Historic Park, which includes many sites visited by Lewis and Clark; and the State Historical Museum in Boise. Other attractions are the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area south of Boise, Hells Canyon on the Idaho-Oregon border, and the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in south-central Idaho.
Political Situation of Idaho :
Idaho's constitution, adopted in 1889, became effective in 1890 upon statehood. The state's chief executive is a governor elected for a term of four years. The legislature consists of a 42-member senate and an 84-member house of representatives. The state also elects two representatives and two senators to the U.S. Congress and has four electoral votes.
Idaho is a Republican state in national politics. C. L. Butch Otter, R (to Jan. 2019) is the current and 32nd Governor of Idaho and Brad Little, R (to Jan. 2019) is the Lieut. Governor.
Idaho State Senators are Mike Crapo, R (to Jan. 2017); Jim Risch, R (to Jan. 2015).
Economical Situation of Idaho :
Agriculture is a major industry: Idaho's chief crops are potatoes (for which the state, easily the nation's largest producer, is famous). The state produces about one fourth of the nation's potato crop, as well as wheat, apples, corn, peas, beans barley, sugar beets, and hops. Cattle and dairy goods are among the leading agricultural products.
Manufacturing has recently supplanted agriculture as the most important sector of Idaho's economy.. Electronic and computer equipment, processed foods, lumber, and chemicals are the major manufactured items.
With the growth of winter sports, tourism now outranks other industries in revenue. Idaho's many streams and lakes provide fishing, camping, and boating sites. The nation's largest elk herds draw hunters from all over the world, and the famed Sun Valley resort attracts thousands of visitors to its swimming, golfing, and skiing facilities.
Mining, once the major source of income, and still economically important, produces phosphates, gold, silver, molybdenum, antimony, lead, zinc, and other minerals
Nevada, also officially known as the "Silver State" due to the importance of silver to its history and economy, is a far western state of the United States. It is the 7th most extensive, the 35th most populous, and the 9th least densely populated of the 50 United States, with the population of 2,890,845.(2015 est)
Nevada is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast,California to the west, Arizona to the southeast and Utah to the east.
Carson City has served as the capital of Nevada since statehood in 1864 and for much of its history was a hub for the Virginia and Truckee Railroad.The city is a trade center for a mining and agricultural area. State government is the major employer, and tourism is economically important. The largest city of Nevada is Las Vegas, which is an internationally renowned major resort city known primarily for gambling, shopping, fine dining, and nightlife and is the leading financial, commercial, and cultural center for Southern Nevada.
Outside the cities, visitors are attracted to Hoover Dam and Lake Mead, with its facilities for fishing, swimming, and boating; Lake Tahoe and Death Valley National Park, both on the California line; Lehman Caves National Monument; Great Basin National Park; and restored mining ghost towns like Virginia City.
Nevada's leading institution of higher education is the University of Nevada, at Reno and at Las Vegas.
The driest state in the nation, with an average annual rainfall of only about 7 in., much of Nevada is uninhabited, sagebrush-covered desert. The wettest part of the state receives about 40 in. of precipitation per year, while the driest spot has less than 4 in. per year.
Political Situation of Nevada :
Nevada's constitution was adopted in 1864. The legislature is composed of 21 senators and 42 assembly members. The governor is elected for a four-year term; Brian Sandoval, (to Jan. 2019) is the 29th and current Governor of the U.S. state of Nevada and a member of the Republican Party and the Lieut. Governor is Mark Hutchison, R (to Jan. 2019) The state elects two U.S. senators and four representatives and has six electoral votes. The current senators are Catherine Cortez Masto, D - Dean Heller, R (to Jan. 2019).
Economical Situation of Nevada :
Many of the high plateau areas are excellent for grazing, and cattle and sheep raising are important industries. Because of the prevailing dryness and the steep slopes, agriculture is not highly developed, but is devoted mainly to growing hay and other feed for cattle; however, potatoes, onions, and some other crops are also cultivate.
Nevada's riches do not grow from its land; rather, almost incredible wealth lies below its surface. Nevada was made famous by the discovery of the Comstock Lode, the richest known U.S. silver deposit, in 1859, and its mines have produced large quantities of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, mercury, barite, and tungsten. Oil was discovered in 1954. Gold now far exceeds all other minerals in value of production. Although copper mining is now much less dominant than before, Nevada is still the nation's leading producer of gold, silver, and mercury. Petroleum, diatomite, and other minerals are also extracted.
The state's manufactures include gaming machines and products, aerospace equipment, lawn and garden irrigation devices, and seismic monitoring equipment. Warehousing and trucking are also significant Nevada industries.
Nevada's economy, however, is overwhelmingly based on tourism, especially the gambling (legalized in 1931) and resort industries centered in Las Vegas and, to a lesser extent, Reno and Lake Tahoe. Gambling taxes are a primary source of state revenue. Nevada is still the gambling capital of the U.S. and a leading entertainment center. In 2009, 12.5% of Nevada’s general revenue came from gambling, which brought in $830 million. Nevada's lack of a lottery might account for its 12th place ranking for total gambling revenue. The service sector employs about half of Nevada's workers.
Liberal divorce laws made Reno "the divorce capital of the world" for many years, but similar laws enacted in other states ended this distinction.
Much of Nevada (almost 80% of whose land is federally owned) is given over to military and related use. Nellis Air Force Base and the Nevada Test Site have been the scene of much nuclear and aircraft testing; Yucca Mountain is slated to be the primary depository for U.S. nuclear wastes.
Nicknamed as “Land of Enchantment”, New Mexico is the 47th state of USA, located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. It is fifth by area, the 36th-most populous, and the sixth-least densely populated of the 50 United States with the population of 2,085,109 (2015 est).
Among U.S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics, including descendants of Spanish colonists who have lived in the area for more than 400 years. It has the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a proportion of the population after Alaska, and the fourth-highest total number of Native Americans after California, Oklahoma, and Arizona.
At its northwestern corner are the so-called Four Corners, where Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah meet at right angles; New Mexico is also bordered by Oklahoma (NE), Texas (E, S), and Mexico (S).
Economical Situation of New Mexico :
Because irrigation opportunities are few, most of the arable land is given over to grazing. There are many large ranches, with cattle and sheep on the open range year round. In the dry farming regions, the major crops are hay and sorghum grains. Onions, potatoes, and dairy products are also important. In addition, piñon nuts, pinto beans, and chilis are crops particularly characteristic of New Mexico. Pinewood is the chief commercial wood.
Much of the state's income is derived from its considerable mineral wealth. New Mexico is a leading producer of uranium ore, manganese ore, potash, salt, perlite, copper ore, natural gas, beryllium, and tin concentrates. Petroleum and coal are also found in smaller quantities. Silver and turquoise have been used in making jewelry since long before European exploration.
The federal government is the largest employer in the state, accounting for over one quarter of New Mexico's jobs. A large percentage of government jobs in the state are related to the military; there are several air force bases, along with national observatories and the Los Alamos and Sandia laboratories. Climate and increasing population have aided New Mexico's effort to attract new industries; manufacturing, centered especially around Albuquerque, includes food and mineral processing and the production of chemicals, electrical equipment, and ordnance. High-technology manufacturing is increasingly important, much of it in the defense industry.
Millions of acres of the wild and beautiful country of New Mexico are under federal control as national forests and monuments and help to make tourism a chief source of income. Best known of the state's attractions are the Carlsbad Caverns National Park and the Aztec Ruins National Monument. Thousands of tourists annually visit the White Sands, Bandelier, Capulin Volcano, El Morro, Fort Union, Gila Cliff Dwellings, and Salinas Pueblo Missions national monuments and Chaco Culture National Historical Park . Several of New Mexico's surviving native pueblos are also much visited.
Montana, also known as the “Treasure State” , is a Rocky Mt. state in the northwestern region of the United States. Montana is ranked 4th in size with 145,552 sq mi, but 44th in population (of 1,032,949) and 48th in population density of the 50 United States.
Montana is bounded by North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, Idaho to the west, and the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan to the north.
Helena is the capital of the state of Montana and Billings is the largest city, with a population over 100,000 and is a medical, manufacturing, and trade center for the south Montana– north Wyoming region. Other important cities include Missoula, Great Falls and Butte.
Much of the fourth largest U.S. state is still sparsely populated country dominated by spectacular nature. High granite peaks, forests, lakes, and such wonders as those of Glacier National Park attract many visitors to Montana. Other places of interest include Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Big Hole National Battlefield, and Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site and the National Bison Range, near Ravalli, where herds of buffalo may be seen. Strips of Yellowstone National Park, including the north and west entrances, are also in Montana, as are such Native American reservations as the Blackfoot, the Fort Belknap, the Fort Peck, and the Crow. Rushing mountain streams and numerous lakes bring fishing enthusiasts to the state, and the abundant wildlife—elk, deer, bear, moose, and waterfowl—attracts hunters. Mountain and ski resorts draw other vacationers.
The University of Montana, at Missoula, and Montana State University, at Bozeman, are the state's major institutions of higher learning. Both these systems also have other campuses.
Political Situation of Montana :
In 1973 a new constitution took effect, replacing the one adopted in 1889. The governor is elected for a term of four years and may be reelected. The legislative assembly is made up of a senate with 50 members and a house of representatives with 100 members. Montana is represented in the U.S. Congress by one representative and two senators,-- currently Steve Daines, R (to Jan. 2021); Jon Tester, D (to Jan. 2019), and the state has three electoral votes in presidential elections.
Currently, Steve Bullock, D (to Jan. 2017) is the 24th Governor of Montana and the Lieut. Governor is Angela McLean, D (to Jan. 2017)
Economical Situation of Montana :
The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Montana's total state product in 2014 was $44.3 billion. Per capita personal income in 2014 was $40,601, 35th in the nation
In and around Montana's mountainous western region are the large mineral deposits for which the state is famous—copper, silver, gold, platinum, zinc, lead, and manganese. The eastern part of the state is noted for its petroleum and natural gas, and there are also vast subbituminous coal deposits, worked largely at the most extensive U.S. open-pit mines. Montana also mines vermiculite, chromite, tungsten, molybdenum, and palladium. Leading industries manufacture forest products, processed foods, and refined petroleum.
In eastern Montana the high grass of the Great Plains once nourished herds of buffalo and later sustained the cattle and sheep of huge ranches; much of the high grass is now gone, but the cattle and sheep remain. Periodic drought and severe weather have turned some farming communities into ghost towns, but agriculture, with the aid of irrigation, still provides the largest share of Montana's income. Wheat is the most valuable farm item, with cattle also of primary importance. Other principal crops include barley, sugar beets, and hay.
Fields of grain cover much of Montana's plains. It ranks high among the states in wheat and barley, with rye, oats, flaxseed, sugar beets, and potatoes as other important crops. Sheep and cattle raising make significant contributions to the economy.
Tourism is also important to the economy with over ten million visitors a year to Glacier National Park, Flathead Lake, the Missouri River headwaters, the site of the Battle of Little Bighorn and three of the five entrances to Yellowstone National Park.
State of Oregon, also known as the “Beaver State” , is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.It is one of only three states of the contiguous United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean, and the proximity to the ocean heavily influences the state's mild winter climate, despite the latitude.
Oregon is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the north by Washington, on the south by California, on the east by Idaho, and on the southeast by Nevada. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary, and the Snake River delineates much of the eastern boundary.
Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 26th most populous U.S. state.
Political Situation of Oregon :
Oregon still operates under its original (1857) constitution. Its executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term. Its legislature has a senate with 30 members and an assembly with 60 members. The state elects two senators and five representatives to the U.S. Congress and has seven electoral votes. Katherine "Kate" Brown(Democrat) (born June 21, 1960) is the 38th and current Governor of the U.S. state of Oregon. The senators are Jeff Merkley, D (to Jan. 2021); Ron Wyden, D (to Jan. 2017)
Economical Situation of Oregon :
Oregon's major sources of farm income are greenhouse products, wheat, cattle (huge herds graze on the plateaus E of the Cascades), and dairy items. Hay, wheat, pears, and onions are important, and the state is one of the nation's leading producers of snap beans, peppermint, sweet cherries (orchards are particularly numerous in the N Willamette Valley), broccoli, and strawberries. Oregon has developed an important and growing wine industry since 1980.
The state's 30.7 million acres (12.4 million hectares) of rich forestland (almost half the state) comprise the country's greatest reserves of standing timber; huge areas have been set aside for conservation. Wood processing was long the state's major industry; Douglas fir predominates in the Cascades and western pine in the eastern regions. Since 1991 many areas have been closed to logging in order to protect endangered wildlife. Nevertheless, Oregon has retained its title as the nation's foremost lumber state, producing more than 5 billion board feet a year. Other major products are food, paper and paper items, machinery, and fabricated metals. Printing and publishing are important businesses. In recent decades Oregon (now sometimes called "Silicon Forest") has become home to many computer and electronic companies; growth in this sector has offset job losses in the timber industry.
Also known as the “Lone Star State” , Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area (268,581 sq mi) and population (27,469,114 (2015 est)
Texas is located in the South Central part of the country and is bounded by the other US states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.
The state capital of Texas is Austin, which is the fourth-largest city in Texas.Austin has a growing commercial and diversified manufacturing sector. Civilian government employment is 20% of the labor force and is important to the economy. As home to the University of Texas, Austin is a major center for research and development and is nationally recognized as a high-technology center.
Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth-most populous city in the United States, located in Southeast Texas near the Gulf of Mexico. With a census-estimated 2014 population of 2.239 million within a land area of 599.6 square miles (1,553 km2), it also is the largest city in the Southern United States.
Millions of tourists spend over $50 billion annually visiting more than 100 state parks, recreation areas, and points of interest in Texas such as the Gulf Coast resort area, the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, the Alamoin San Antonio, the state capital in Austin, and the Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Park.
Among the many institutions of higher learning in Texas are the University of Texas, mainly at Austin, but with large branches at Arlington, El Paso, and the Dallas suburb of Richardson; Baylor University, at Waco; East Texas State University, at Commerce; University of North Texas, at Denton; Rice University, at Houston; Southern Methodist University, at Dallas; Texas A&M University, at College Station; Texas Arts and Industries University, at Kingsville; Texas Christian University, at Fort Worth; and Texas Southern University and the University of Houston, both at Houston.
Political Situation of Texas :
The present constitution of Texas was adopted in 1876, replacing the "carpetbag" constitution of 1869. The state's executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term. The state's legislature has a senate with 31 members and a house with 150 representatives. The state elects 2 senators and 36 representatives to the U.S. Congress and has 38 electoral votes.
Texas politics were dominated by Democrats from the end of Reconstruction into the 1960s, but Republicans achieved parity in the 1990s and then dominance. The current governor of Texas is Greg Abbott, R (to Jan. 2019), and Lieut. Governor is Dan Patrick, R (to Jan. 2019). John Cornyn, R (to Jan. 2021); Ted Cruz, R (to Jan. 2019) are the senators in service currently.
Economic Situation of Texas :
Mineral resources compete with industry for primary economic importance in Texas. The state is the leading U.S. producer of oil, natural gas, and natural-gas liquids, despite recent production declines. It is also a major producer of helium, salt, sulfur, sodium sulfate, clays, gypsum, cement, and talc. Texas manufactures an enormous variety of products, including chemicals and chemical products, petroleum, food and food products, transportation equipment, machinery, and primary and fabricated metals. The development and manufacture of electronic equipment, such as computers, has in recent decades become one of the state's leading industries; the area around Dallas–Fort Worth has become known as "Silicon Prairie," a name now also extended to Austin and its suburbs.
Agriculturally, Texas is one of the most important states in the country. It easily leads the nation in producing cattle, cotton, and cottonseed. Texas also has more farms, farmland, sheep, and lambs than any other state. Principal crops are cotton lint, grains, sorghum, vegetables, citrus and other fruits, and rice; the greatest farm income is derived from cattle, cotton, dairy products, and greenhouse products. Hogs, wool, and mohair are also significant. Among other important Texas crops are melons, wheat, pecans, oats, and celery. Texas also has an important commercial fishing industry. Principal catches are shrimp, oysters, and menhaden.
Utah, also known as the Beehive State, is the 45th state admitted to the U.S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, and 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States with a population of nearly 3 million(2015)
Utah is bordered by Idaho and Wyoming to the North, Colorado to the East, Arizona to the South, and Nevada to the West, and touches New Mexico in the South East, at the Four Corners.
The capital and the largest city of Utah is Salt Lake City. with an estimated population of 190,884 in 2014. It is a great regional center, world headquarters of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and the processing point for products of an irrigated farm region that is rich in minerals.
Utah's leading institutions of higher learning include Brigham Young University, at Provo; Southern Utah University, at Cedar City; the University of Utah, at Salt Lake City; Utah State University, at Logan; and Weber State University, at Ogden.
The state's unusual geologic history has produced many natural wonders, most notably Great Salt Lake and the spectacular Bryce Canyon and Zion national parks. Other attractions are Canyonlands and Arches, national parks; Cedar Breaks, Dinosaur, Grand Staircase–Escalante, Hovenweep, Natural Bridges, Rainbow Bridge, and Timpanogos Cave national monuments; Glen Canyon National Recreation Area; and Golden Spike National Historic Site.
Political Sitauation of Utah :
Utah still operates under its first constitution, adopted in 1895 and effective with statehood in 1896. The executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term. Utah's legislature has a senate with 29 members and a house of representatives with 75 members. The state sends two senators and four representatives to the U.S. Congress and has six electoral votes.
The current and is 17th governor of U.S state of Utah is Gary Herbert, R (to Jan. 2017), with Lieut. Governor: Spencer J. Cox, R (to Jan. 2017). Utah’s senators are Mike Lee, R (to Jan. 2017); Orrin G. Hatch, R (to Jan. 2019).
Economic Situation of Utah :
Cultivated land, including isolated farms in river valleys and considerable dry-farming acreage, is limited to a small percentage of the state's total area. Major crops are hay, corn, barley, and wheat, but the bulk of income from agriculture comes from livestock and livestock products, including sheep, cattle, dairying, and an expanding poultry industry. Abundant sunshine provides some compensation for inadequate rainfall, and the climate is generally moderate, allowing for substantial fruit production. Agrarian life was well suited to the principles of the Mormon settlers; moreover, they hoped that the difficulties of successfully farming the dry land would discourage non-Mormons from settling in the area.
The development of nonagricultural resources was more or less frowned upon by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and, in general, was initiated by non-Mormons. However, a wealth of minerals made mineral exploitation almost inevitable and, in turn, stimulated the construction of railroads. Today many residents are engaged in mining or mining-related industries. Copper is the chief metal, followed by gold, molybdenum, and magnesium. Other important mineral products include beryllium, asphalt, silver, lead, tin, fluorspar, mercury, vanadium, potassium salts, manganiferous ore, and uranium.
For many years high freight rates and the long distances to major markets, together with a Mormon distrust of industrialization, tended to discourage manufacturing. However, the establishment of defense plants and military installations during World War II spurred phenomenal industrial growth. The proximity of high-grade iron, coal, and limestone made Provo a steel center. Industrial plants extend from Provo to Brigham City, with the largest concentration in the Salt Lake City area. Utah is now a center for aerospace research and the production of missiles, spacecraft, computer hardware and software, electronic systems, and related items. Other major manufactures are processed foods, machinery, fabricated metals, and petroleum products.
Tourism has become increasingly important to the state's economy. In addition to the five national parks and seven national monuments, ski resorts, particularly in the Wasatch Range, are popular destinations. Utah is also host to the internationally known Sundance Film Festival. Held every January, Sundance is one of the largest independent film festivals in the United.
Washington state, nicknamed as the “Evergreen State” is the 18th largest with an area of 71,362 square miles (184,827 sq km), and the 13th most populous state with over 7 million people. It is the second most populous state on the West Coast and in the Western United States, after California.
Washington is located north of Oregon, west of Idaho, and south of the Canadian province of British Columbia on the coast of the Pacific Ocean.
Olympia is the capital of the U.S. state of Washington. A port of entry, it ships lumber products and agricultural produce. Oyster fisheries and canning plants are there, and there is printing and publishing. Manufactures include explosives; consumer goods; sports equipment; plastic, metal, and paper products; veneer; furniture; cheese; steel; aircraft engines; and porcelain enamel.
The largest city in the state of Washington and in the Pacific Northwest ,Seattle is the region's commercial, financial, transportation, and industrial hub and a major port of entry, important in both East Asian and Alaskan trade. A center of aircraft manufacturing and shipbuilding since World War II, the city is a major center for the Boeing Company, which employs a significant number of residents, as does the Microsoft Corp. in nearby Redmond. There are also major electronics, banking, insurance, biomedical, food-processing, and lumber industries. Steel, textiles, clothing, metal and glass products, and beer are among the products manufactured in the city, which has an international airport.
Among the state's institutions of higher learning are Central Washington University, at Ellensburg; Eastern Washington University, at Cheney; Evergreen State College, at Olympia; Gonzaga University, at Spokane; Pacific Lutheran University and the University of Puget Sound, at Tacoma; Seattle University and the University of Washington, at Seattle; Washington State University, at Pullman; Western Washington University, at Bellingham; and Whitman College, at Walla Walla.
The major points of interest: Mt. Rainier, Olympic, and North Cascades National Parks. Mount St. Helens, a peak in the Cascade Range, erupted in May 1980. Also of interest are Whitman Mission and Fort Vancouver National Historic Sites; and the Pacific Science Center and the Space Needle, in Seattle.
Political Situation of Washington :
Washington still operates under its first constitution, adopted in 1889. Its executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term. The legislature has a senate with 49 members and a house of representatives with 98 members. The state sends 2 senators and 10 representatives to the U.S. Congress and has 12 electoral votes. The current and 23rd Governor of Washington is Jay Inslee, D (to Jan. 2017), with the Lieut. Governor, Brad Owen, D (to Jan. 2017). The Senators are Patty Murray, D (to Jan. 2017); Maria Cantwell, D (to Jan. 2019)
Economic Situtaion of Washington :
Washington's water resources provide both irrigation and enormous hydroelectric power. The impact of the Columbia River on the life and economy of the state can scarcely be overestimated. In early days the river was a means of transport and a salmon-fishing field for many Native American tribes. Because of the steep drop from its origin to its mouth, the Columbia is one of the greatest sources of hydroelectric power in the world.Grand Coulee Dam—one of the world's largest concrete dams and greatest potential power-producing structures—and Bonneville Dam have been supplemented, on the river's upper course, by Chief Joseph and Rocky Reach dams (both completed 1961), Priest Rapids Dam (1962), and Wanapum Dam (1963), and, on its lower course, by The Dalles Dam (1957), John Day Dam (1968), and McNary Dam (1953), all shared with Oregon.
The dams on the Columbia's lower course were designed as power, flood-control, and navigation projects, whereas the dams on the upper course are integral to the Columbia basin project (with the Grand Coulee as the key unit), providing not only power and flood control but extensive irrigation to the Columbia Plateau. The Snake River in the east and the Yakima River in S central Washington also have important irrigation projects. Dams on the Skagit River (including Ross and Diablo, two of the world's highest) supply power to Seattle and the surrounding area.
Puget Sound is the heart of Washington's industrial and commercial development. It is navigable and has many beautiful bays, on which are situated such commercial and industrial cities as Seattle, Tacoma, and Everett. Seattle, an exporter and importer in trade with Asia and a gateway to Alaska (because of the protected Inland Passage), is a major U.S. city and a center for the manufacture of jet aircraft (as well as missiles and spacecraft) by the Boeing Corp. In recent years, computer software (Microsoft Corp. is near Seattle), electronics, and biotechnology have become increasingly important to the economy.
Washington's huge food processing industry is based on the state's diversified irrigated farming and dairying as well as on its abundant fishing resources. Salmon is the biggest catch, but halibut, bottomfish, oysters, and crabs are also significant.
Much of the land in E Washington is used for dry farming. Irrigation, however, has converted many of the river valleys east of the Cascades (especially the Yakima and Wenatchee) into garden areas. This region contains most of Washington's vineyards; from the 1980s the state has developed an important wine industry. Washington leads the country in the production of apples, sweet cherries, and pears and is a major wheat producer, chiefly in the hilly southeastern Palouse area. Washington is also a major producer of corn, onions, potatoes, apricots, grapes (including those made into wine), and other fruits, nuts, and vegetables. Cattle, dairy goods, sheep, and poultry are also economically important. Spokane is the commercial and transportation hub of the entire "Inland Empire" region between the Cascades and the Rockies, which extends into British Columbia, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon.
Despite the vast semiarid expanse E of the Cascades, more than half of the state's area is forested, and the lumber and wood-products industry, so important in the early development of the state, remains one of its largest. Many of Washington's cities (among them Tacoma, Bellingham, Everett, and Anacortes) began as sawmill centers—Seattle itself was home to the original "Skid Road"—and lumber, pulp, paper, and related items are still among their major products.
Other important manufactures in the state are chemicals and primary metals, especially aluminum. Abundant water power and the rich aluminum and magnesium ores found in the Okanogan Highlands in the northeast part of the state have made Washington the nation's leading aluminum producer. Washington's chief minerals are sand and gravel, cement, stone, and diatomite. Gold, lead, and zinc are also found in the Okanogan Highlands. Tourism is an increasingly important industry.
Wyoming, also known as the “Equality State” is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States. It is the tenth largest state by area, and with population smaller than 600,000 people it is the least populous and the second least densely populated of the 50 United States.
One of the Rocky Mt. states of the W United States, Wyoming is bordered by South Dakota and Nebraska on the east, Colorado and Utah on the south, Idaho on the west, and Montana on the north.
Cheyenne is the capital and the most populous city in Wyoming, with a population estimate of 62,448 in 2013. It is a market for sheep and cattle ranches and a shipping center with good transportation facilities. Manufactures include dairy, wood, petroleum, and metal products; feeds, lumber, machinery, and construction materials.
Wyoming has one public four-year institution, the University of Wyoming in Laramie and one private four-year college, Wyoming Catholic College, in Lander, Wyoming. In addition, there are seven two-year community colleges spread through the state.
Second in mean elevation to Colorado, Wyoming has many attractions for the tourist trade, notably Yellowstone National Park .Hikers, campers and skiers are attracted to Grand Teton National Park and Jackson Hole National Monument in the Teton Range of the Rockies. Cheyenne is famous for its annual “Frontier Days” celebration. Flaming Gorge, the Fort Laramie National Historic Site, and Devils Tower and Fossil Butte National Monuments are other points of interest.
Political Situation of Wyoming :
Wyoming's Constitution established three branches of government: the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.The executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term.
The Wyoming State Legislature comprises a House of Representatives with 60 members and a Senate with 30 members.The state sends two senators and one representative to the U.S. Congress and has three electoral votes.
The executive branch is headed by the governor and includes a secretary of state, auditor, treasurer and superintendent of public instruction. Wyoming does not have a lieutenant governor. Instead the secretary of state stands first in the line of succession.
The current and the 32nd Governor of Wyoming since 2011 is Matt Mead, R (to Jan. 2019). Michael B. Enzi, R (to Jan. 2021) and John Barrasso, R (to Jan. 2019) are the senators of Wyoming.
Economic Situation of Wyoming :
Dry farming, producing hay, wheat, and barley, is supplemented by the more diversified yield (especially sugar beets and dry beans) of irrigated fields. Most of the inhabitants of the state derive their livelihood directly or indirectly from farming or ranching. The most valuable farm commodities, in terms of cash receipts, are cattle, hay, sugar beets, and wheat. Sparse grasses over much of the region necessitate a large grazing area for each animal, and the average ranch in Wyoming is larger than in any state except Arizona. Sheep graze in places unfit for cattle, and both sheep and cattle range by permit in the national forests. Cooperative grazing tracts are on the increase. Horses, a prized essential in the practice of ranching, are carefully raised and trained.
Mining is the largest sector of the state's economy, accounting for about one quarter of the gross state product. Oil wells were first drilled in the 1860s, and today petroleum remains one of the state's most important minerals. The production of petroleum and petroleum products is centered in Casper. Wyoming is the leading coal-producing state and a leader in the production of petroleum and natural gas. Wyoming has the world's largest sodium carbonate (natrona) deposits and has the nation's second largest uranium deposits. Wyoming is also the producer of considerable amounts of gold, iron, and various clays. Important manufactures include processed foods and clay, glass, and wood products.
Wyoming has almost 10 million acres of forested land. The state's natural beauty makes tourism and recreation a major source of revenue. In addition, the multitude of rodeos, annual roundups, and frontier celebrations and the presence of numerous dude ranches draw a large number of vacationers every year.